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In the fig above,there are two domains where hosts A,B,C and D are in private domain's and the rest in public. Suppose host A wants to send some data to Cisco. So the Packet contains the IP address of host A and the destination IP address i.e 10.10.10.10/24 and 18.104.22.168. When this packet is received by the router, it has to change the source IP address to a public IP address since it has to go to a public domain. It reaches the destination after the translation has been done and the packet is sent back to the router. Further, the router recognizes the packet and changes back the source address. This is known as network address translation(NAT).
Whereas PAT(port address translation) is an extension of NAT which lets multiple devices to map to a single IP address and this is what is used when an internet connection is set up at your house. In this case, the internal global IP address is translated back to the source.
This is a little piece of information for all the enthusiasts who wanted to learn the address translation from one domain to other.